Plant growth regulators improve in vitroflowering and rapid generation advancement in lentil and faba bean

TitlePlant growth regulators improve in vitroflowering and rapid generation advancement in lentil and faba bean
AuthorsMobini Saeid Hassanzadeh, Lulsdorf Monika, Warkentin Thomas D., Vandenberg Albert
TypeJournal Article
DOI 10.1007/s11627-014-9647-8
Journal Abbreviation In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.
Publication Date2014 September 11


Rapid generation technology (RGT) involves applying plant growth regulators to accelerate in vitro flowering and the use of immature seed to shorten the time required to produce the next generation of plants. The effect of different concentrations of flurprimidol and combinations of one cytokinin and two auxins on in vitro flowering was evaluated using two lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars. Adding flurprimidol to the medium reduced the internode length of plants, and plant height was decreased to approximately 10 cm in both species. The optimal concentration of flurprimidol depended on the species and the light intensity. The combination of 0.3 μM flurprimidol, 5.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid, and 2.3 μM zeatin resulted in 100% of faba bean plants flowering and 90% setting seed. The combination of 0.9 μM flurprimidol, 0.05 μM 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, and with a perlite growth substrate resulted in 90% of lentil plants flowering and over 80% with seed set. However, faba bean showed better response with agar as the substrate. Under optimized conditions, a single generation cycle was achieved in 54 d for faba bean and 45 d for lentil. RGT could produce seven and eight generations per year for faba bean and lentil, respectively. For the single seed descent breeding method for self-pollinated plants, a seed of each plant in each generation is advanced three times per year until near-homozygosity, thus requiring more than 2 yr. The RGT method produces about double the number of generations per year and therefore has potential for significant acceleration of pulse crop breeding programs.


Saeid Hassanzadeh Mobini & Monika Lulsdorf & Thomas D. Warkentin & Albert Vandenberg (2015) Plant growth regulators improve in vitro flowering and rapid generation advancement in lentil and faba bean. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.—Plant (2015) 51:71–79 DOI 10.1007/s11627-014-9647-8

Related Species
Related Species 

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an important pulse crop with annual production of 3-4 Mt across 70 countries (Cubero et al. 2009. DOI 10.1079/9781845934873.0000; pg. 13). Lentils are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, micronutrients and vitamins for human nutrition and is consumed in more than 120 countries. Furthermore, their small seed size and flat shape make them relatively quick cooking and easily decorticated compared to most other grain legumes (Sharpe et al. 2013. BMC Genomics. DOI 10.1186/1471-2164-14-192). The Lentil plant has a bushy growth habit with a height of about 40 cm; the seeds are lens-shaped and usually grow two per pod. ... [more]


Faba bean is an annual legume that thrives in relatively cooler growing climates. It is one of the best nitrogen fixers among the grain legumes deriving up to 74% of its nitrogen from the atmosphere and leaving soil nitrogen balances positive (Amanuel et al., Biol Fertil Soils 32:353–359). Nutritionally, it is a good source of dietary fiber, protein, phosphorus, copper and manganese, and a very good source of folate. It is also very low in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. Faba bean has an erect growth habit with stiff stems and long pinnate, gray-green leaves. The pods are long with a downy interior and contain 3-8 seeds. Faba bean is still often grown as a cover crop to prevent erosion, because they can overwinter and because as a legume, they fix nitrogen in the soil. ... [more]

Research Area
Research Area 
Breeding & Genetics

Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques. ... [more]